Main Article Content
Background: Gout causes attacks of pain and swelling in one or more joints and control of serum uric acid level has been used as one of the therapeutic methods for gout. Inhibition method of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity which can oxidize hypoxanthine to uric acid has been commonly used to decrease serum uric acid level. On the other hand, Elephantopus scaber Linn leaf has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as folk medicine by some people in Indonesia.
Aims: This study was to determine the hypouricemic effect of ethanol extract of Elephantopus scaber leaf by in vivo study in caffeine (PO)-induced hyperuricemic male rats.
Methodology: The E. scaber leaf was obtained from Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants, Bagor, Indonesia. Preparation of E. scaber leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were induced by using caffeine with dose 27 mg/200 g b.w until the levels in the blood of male rats become hyperuricemic. Equipment (Easy Touch) was used by detecting the level of uric acid in a rat blood. Equipment (Easy Touch) was used by detecting the level of uric acid in a rat blood. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a positive control was used allopurinol 36 mg/200 g b.w, test preparation were used 3 doses, i.e, 175 mg/200 g b.w, 350 mg/200 g b.w and 700 mg/200 b.w which suspended in Na-CMC 0.5%.
Results: The results from a decrease in blood uric acid levels in rats, on the 15th days showed that a dose of 350 mg / 200 g b.w gave decrease in the highest percentage ie 43%. Statistical analysis on the 15th day showed that all of the test preparation groups of E. scaber had effects decrease uric acid in blood serum of rats and significantly different from negative controls (p ≤ 0.05). The dose of 350 mg/200 g b.w of E. scaber had the same effect with a dose of 36 mg/200 g b.w allopurinol in reducing uric acid in experimental rats.
Conclusions: E. scaber is a plant that is quite potential to be used in the treatment of gout.
Paul R, Chakravarti HN, Mandal SK, Chatterjee S, Choudhury PS, Study of serum uric acid in chronic liver disease and its relation with other parameters. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013;4(7): 162-165.
Ministry of Health (MOH), Wellington. Review of Health Education Resources on Gout Medication: Summary of report to the Ministry of Health; 2012.
Muhammad A, Khan U, Iqbal A, Abdul H, Comprehensive review on therapeutic strategies of gouty arthritis, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2014;27(5)(Special):1575-1582.
Kabeer FA, Prathapan R, Phytopharmacolo-gical Profile of Elephantopus scaber. J. Pharmacologia, 2014;5:272-285.
Chang CL, Shen CC, Ni CL and Chen CC. A new sesquiterpene from Elephantopus scaber. Hung Kuang Journal, Taiwan. 2011;65:49-56.
Harborne JB. Textbook of phytochemical methods. A Guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 5th edition, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London. 1998;3-77.
Farnswoth NR. Biological and phytochemical screening of plant, J. Pharmacy. 1986;55(3):225-265.
Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), CPCSEA Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Facility, Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003;35:257-274.
Federer WT. Experimental design; theory and aplication, New York, The Macmillan C0; 1995.
Azizahwati W, Sumali Prihandini K. The effect of reducing uric acid levels in the blood of male white from the decoction of roots of cat root plants (Acalypha indica L). Department of Pharmacy, University of Indonesia; 2005.
Michael JE. Sternberga and stephen H. muggletonb, Structure Activity Relationships (SAR) and Pharmacophore Discovery Using Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), QSAR Comb. Sci. 2003;22.
Chartchalerm INA, Thanakorn N, Virapong P. A practical overview of quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR), EXCLI Journal. 2009;8:74-88.
Chanin N, Wujec M, Kędzierska e, Kuśmierz F, Plech, Wróbel A, Paneth A, Orzelska J, Fidecka S and Paneth P. Pharmacological and structure-activity relationship evaluation of 4-aryl-1-Diphenylacetyl(thio)semicarbazides, Molecules. 2014;19:4745-4759.
Wujec M, Kędzierska e, Kuśmierz F, Plech Wróbel A, Paneth A, Orzelska J, Fidecka S and Paneth P. Pharmacological and Structure-Activity Relationship Evaluation of 4-aryl-1-Diphenylacetyl(thio) semicarbazides, Molecules. 2014;19:4745-4759.
Jennie XA, Tripathy S, Ramya K, Srinivas K, Kumar KS. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of elephantopus scaber in complete freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic rat model, Int. J.of Phytopharmacology. 2016;7(1):41-45.
Milind P, Sushila K, Neeraj S, Understanding gout beyond doubt. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013;4(9):25-34.