Main Article Content
Background: The relationship between iron, hypoxia, inflammation, and erythropoietin in cellular homeostasis is well documented. Patients on radiotherapy are known with active immune/inflammatory disorders often accompanied with reduced iron uptake or unavailability of circulatory iron and hence, must be adequately evaluated. The present study hypothesized “aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Telfairia occidentalis and Parquetina nigrescens have chemical properties of ameliorating and restoring to normal, functional iron deficiency sequel to Cobalt 60 irradiation effect”.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-Five young male guinea-pigs approximately 450 gram in weight were recruited and thirty were randomly assigned to 3 groups (A, B and C) for the study. Groups A and B were further divided into 4 (A1-4 and B1-4) with 3 animals (n=3) per group. Three guinea-pigs were also assigned to group C. Groups A and B belonged to Pre and post-irradiation groups while groups C served as control. Each animal was given 400r (4.0 Gy) whole-body gamma-irradiation under general anaesthesia, using a Co60 therapy unit as a source. Groups A1, A2, A3 and A4 had 1,400 mg/kg C. sinensis, 4000 mg/kg P. nigrescens, 3,500 mg/kg T. occidentalis and Combined dose (1,400 mg/kg C. sinensis + 400 mg/kg P. nigrescens + 3,500 mg/kg T. occidentalis) respectively twice daily 72 hours prior to irradiation and continued throughout the 14 days of the study. Groups B1, B2, B3 and B4 had similar treatment but commenced 24 hours after exposure to radiation and likewise continued throughout the 14 days of the study. Group C were not given any treatment but also had irradiation.
Results: Total Iron Binding Capacity, Ferritin, Serum Transferrin receptor and Iron were all increased significantly for all the extracts pre and post irradiation. However, C-reactive protein decreased significantly.
Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Parquetina nigrescens and Telfairia occidentalis leaves have good ameliorating effect on irradiation-induced injuries.
Khan MA, Hill RP, Van Dyk J. Partial volume rat lung irradiation: An evaluation of early DNA damage. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;40:467–476.
Mukherjee D, Coates PJ, Lorimore SA, et al. The in vivo expression of radiation-induced chromosomal instability has an inflammatory mechanism. Radiat Res. 2012;177:18–24.
Kim K, McBride WH. Modifying radiation damage. Curr Drug Targets. 2010;11: 1352–1365.
Schaue D, Kachikwu EL, McBride WH. Cytokines in radiobiological responses: A review. Radiat Res. 2012;178:505–523.
Cazzola M, Ponchio L, de Benedetti F, et al. Defective iron supply for erythropoiesis and adequate endogenous erythropoietin production in the anemia associated with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood. 1996;87:4824–4830.
Castell JV, Gomez-Lechon MJ, David M, et al. Interleukin-6 is the major regulator of acute phase protein synthesis in adult human hepatocytes. FEBS Lett. 1989;242: 237–239.
Jelkmann W. Proinflammatory cytokines lowering erythropoietin production. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 1998;18:555–559.
Rodriguez RM, Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Corwin MJ, Gubler D, Pearl RG. Nutritional deficiencies and blunted erythropoietin response as causes of the anemia of critical illness. J Crit Care. 2001;16:36–41.
Taniguchi S, Dai CH, Price JO, Krantz SB. Interferon gamma downregulates stem cell factor and erythropoietin receptors but not insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in human erythroid colony-forming cells. Blood. 1997;90:2244–2252.
Wang CQ, Udupa KB, Lipschitz DA. Interferon-gamma exerts its negative regulatory effect primarily on the earliest stages of murine erythroid progenitor cell development. J. Cell. Physiol. 1995;162: 134–138.
Maciejewski JP, Selleri C, Sato T, et al. Nitric oxide suppression of human hematopoiesis in vitro. Contribution to inhibitory action of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J. Clin. Invest. 1995;96:1085–1092.
Libregts SF, Gutierrez L, de Bruin AM, et al. Chronic IFN-gamma production in mice induces anemia by reducing erythrocyte life span and inhibiting erythropoiesis through an IRF-1/PU.1 axis. Blood. 2011;118:2578–2588.
Feng Q, Kumagai T, Torii Y, Nakamura Y, Osawa T, Uchida K. Anticarcinogenic antioxidants as inhibitors against intracellular oxidative stress. Free Radical Res. 2001;35:779-788.
Kondo T, Ohta T, Igura K, Hara Y, Kaji D. Tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis endothelial cell growth, migration in vitro, measured by human and tube formation through inhibition of VEGF receptor binding. Cancer Lett. 2002;180:139-144.
Sakata R, Ueno T, Nakamura T, Sakamoto M, Torimura T, Sata M. Green tea polyphenols epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of human hepatic stellate cell line LI90. J Hepatol. 2004;40: 52-59.
Park H, Ko S, Kim J, Kim S. Effects of green tea extracts and polyphenols on the proliferation and activity of bone cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:S342.
Brown AL, Lane J, Holyoak C, Nicol B, Mayes AE, Dadd T. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br. J. Nutr. 2011;106(12): 1880- 1889.
Gbile ZO. Ethnobotany, taxonomy and conservation of medicinal plant in the state of medicinal plant research in Nigeria. 1986;19.
Dina OA, Adedapo AA, Oyimloye OP, Saba AB. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis extracts on experimentally induced anemia in wistar rats. African Journal of Biomedical Science Resources. 2006;3: 181-183.
Oluwole FS, Falade AO, Ogundipe OO. Antiinflammatory effect of some Common Nigerian vegetables. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci. 2003;18(1-2):35-38.
Ajayi OI, Ajayi TC, Omokaro ED, Halim NKD. Erythropoietic value of T. occidentalis in rabbit. A preliminary study. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci. 2000;16(1-2):1-3.
Eseyin OA, Igboasoiyi AC, Oforah E, Ching P, Okoli BC. Effect of extract of T. occidentalis leaves on some biochemical parameters in rat. Glob. J. Pure and Applied Sciences. 2005;11(1):85-87.
Eseyin OA, Igboasoiyi AC, Oforah E, Nkop, Agboke A. Hypoglycemic activity of T. occidentalis in rats. J. Pharm. and Bioresources. 2005;2(1):36-42.
Ekpenyong CE, Akpan EE, Udoh NS. Phytochemistry and toxicity studies of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous leaves extract on liver biochemical indices in wistar rats. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2012;2(5):103-110, 105.
Schlage C. Medical plants of the Wasambas (Tanzania): Documentation and ethnopharmaological evaluation. Plant Biology. 2002;2:83-92.
Agyare C, Asase A, Lechtenberg M, Niehues M, Deters A, Hensel A. An ethnopharmacological survey and in vitro confirmation of ethnopharmacological use of medicinal plants used for wound healing in Bosomtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma area, Ghana. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125(3): 393–403.
Imaga NOA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, Adenekan SO, Edeoghon SO, Kehinde M, Bamiro SB, Ajiboye A, Obinna A. Antisickling and toxicological profiles of leaf and stem of Parquetina nigrescens L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(8):639-643.
Agbor AG, Odetola AA. Haematological studies of Parquetina nigrescens on haemorrhagic anaemic rats. Afr. J. Med. Sci. 2001;30:105-109.
Erah OP, Asonye CC, Okhamafe OA. Response of Trypanosoma brucei-induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation. AJB. 2003;2:307-311.
Kade IJ, Kotila OO, Ayeleso AO, Olaleye AA, Olawoye TL. Antisickling properties of Parquetina nigrescens. Biomed. Res. (Alligarh). 2003;14:185-188.
Akinyemi OI, Dada EO. Phytochemical screening and antityphoid properties of ethanolic leaf extracts of Parquetina nigrescens. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2013;8(10):732-739.
Akinyemi OI, Dada EO. In vivo antityphoid activities and proximate analysis of ethanolic leaf extracts of Parquetina nigrescens. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014;9(5):115-123.
Olatubosun LO, Biliaminu SA, Lawal SA, Olalere FD, Raheem RA, Mohammed AO, Rasheed T. Combined synergistic effects of aqueous extracts of extracts of Parquetina nigrescens, Camellia sinensis and Telfaria occidentalis on bone marrow haemopoietic multipotent stem cells proliferation in irradiated guinea pigs. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2014;15(1):139-150.
Sofowora A. Phytochemical screening: Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 3rd Ed. Spectrum; 2008.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans pharmacognosy. 16th Ed. Elsievier Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2009;199-204.
Harris Ronald. Rehabilitation in Hemiplagia, Occupational Therapy, 8-11.
Malene Nelson, Poulter J. Impact of tea drinking on iron status in the UK: A review. J. Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17(1):43-54.
Samman S, Sandström B, Toft MB, Bukhave K, Jensen M, Sørensen SS, Hansen M. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(3): 607-12.
Jia-bin Deng, Chun-bang Ding, Li Zhang, Rui-wu Yang, Yong-hong Zhou. Authentication of three related herbal species (Curcuma) by DNA barcoding. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(28):6401-6406.
Goel AK, Kulshreshtha DK, Dubey MP, Rajendran SM. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part XVI. Indian Jounal of Experimental Biology. 2002;40(7):812-27.
Jagetia GC, Baliga MS. Influence of the leaf extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. Strahlenther. Onkol; 2002.