Characterization of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Their Anti-microbial Activity in the Fruits of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel

Main Article Content

Peter K. Njenga
Samuel M. Mugo
Ting Zhou


Aim: The study aimed to characterize phenolic acids, flavonoids, and determine their antimicrobial activities in fruits of Vangueria madagascariensis (Tamarind of Indies).

Study Design: The design of the study included picking of Vangueria madagascariensis fruits from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) botanical garden and analysis for their antimicrobial activities at the Botany department research laboratory, JKUAT. Characterization of phenolic acids and flavonoids were conducted at MacEwan University Canada.

Place and Duration: JKUAT, Kenya and MacEwan University, Edmonton, Alberta Canada between June 2013 and June 2016.

Methodology: Phenolic acids and flavonoids from Tamarind of Indies were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSN). The antimicrobial assay was determined using the disk diffusion method.

Results: Based on the retention time, the UV spectrum, and the tandem MS behavior, the results revealed a profile composed of 25 phenolic compounds. Some of the identified phenolic compounds included: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-feruloyl quinic acid, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, 3,4-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 4, 5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, diosmetin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The fruit extracts had a probable presence of quercetin 3-O-6’-malonylglucoside, ikarisoside C, epimedin C, unknown epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin conjugate derivatives. Furthermore, the fruit extracts from Vangueria madagascariensis showed appreciable antimicrobial properties against human pathogen strains. Strong antimicrobial activity was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. The Vangueria madagascariensis was found to be highly potent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis even at low concentrations of 0.1 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The research findings may suggest value of the use of Vangueria madagascariensis fruits as a rich source of antioxidants with therapeutic and nutraceutical value.

Phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidants, microbial activity, Vangueria madagascariensis, mass spectrometry.

Article Details

How to Cite
Njenga, P. K., Mugo, S. M., & Zhou, T. (2020). Characterization of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Their Anti-microbial Activity in the Fruits of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 31(11), 24-37.
Original Research Article


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