European Journal of Medicinal Plants <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Medicinal Plants (ISSN: 2231-0894)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/EJMP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of medicinal plants research including plant growth and development, agronomic management, plant nutrition, plant physiology, cell biology, molecular biology, biotechnology, medicinal properties, phytochemical constituents, fitoterapia, pharmacognosy, essential oils, ehnopharmacology and phytomedicine. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2231-0894 Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Millettia laurenti, Lophira alata and Milicia excelsa, Commonly Used in the Cameroonian Pharmacopoeia <p><strong>Aims:</strong> As the world nowadays is turning towards the research of biologically active natural compounds, this work aimed at assessing the antioxidant potential of compounds contained in the aqueous extracts of three common Cameroonian pharmacopoeia plants, namely <em>Millettia laurenti</em> (<em>Wengé</em>) seeds, <em>Lophira alata</em> (<em>Azobé</em>) leaves and <em>Milicia excelsa</em> (<em>Iroko</em>) barks and the associated bioactive compounds.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> After being dried and ground, they were macerated in water and the polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids quantified. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated through DPPH free radical scavenging, NO scavenging, phosphomolybdate method (TAC), and iron-reducing power (FRAP).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean concentrations obtained ranged between 527 and 1213 µg GAE/g DM for polyphenols, 0.39 and 0.65 µg GAE/g DM for tannins, 19.79 and 27.06 µg QE/g DM for flavonoids, 15.72 and 16.02 µg QuE/g DM for alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of <em>Wengé</em> (AE-WG) and <em>Azobé</em> (AE-AZ) exhibited the highest and significantly similar contents. AE-AZ presented the highest iron reducing power (0.015 µg AAE/g DM at 10 mg/mL) and NO scavenging (IC<sub>50</sub>=3.63 mg/mL) while AE-WG showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 4.20 mg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity (0.39 µg AAE/g DM at 10 mg/mL). No significant correlation was observed between studied bioactive compounds and the different antioxidant responses except flavonoids and tannins with TAC (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> AE-<em>AZ</em> and AE-<em>WG</em> exhibited different antioxidant mechanisms and are therefore of high interest for potential use in the food industry and medicine with reserves to toxicological studies.</p> Ferdinand L. E. Edoun Boris R. T. Tchuente Ruth E. K. Dibacto Hippolyte T. Mouafo Alex D. K. Tchuenchieu Abomo A. C. Ndzana Gabriel N. Medoua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 11 23 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1130295 Characterization of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Their Anti-microbial Activity in the Fruits of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study aimed to characterize phenolic acids, flavonoids, and determine their antimicrobial activities in fruits of<em> Vangueria madagascariensis</em> (Tamarind of Indies).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The design of the study included picking of <em>Vangueria madagascariensis</em> fruits from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) botanical garden and analysis for their antimicrobial activities at the Botany department research laboratory, JKUAT. Characterization of phenolic acids and flavonoids were conducted at MacEwan University Canada.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration:</strong> JKUAT, Kenya and MacEwan University, Edmonton, Alberta Canada between June 2013 and June 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Phenolic acids and flavonoids from Tamarind of Indies were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSN). The antimicrobial assay was determined using the disk diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the retention time, the UV spectrum, and the tandem MS behavior, the results revealed a profile composed of 25 phenolic compounds. Some of the identified phenolic compounds included: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-feruloyl quinic acid, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, 3,4-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 4, 5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, diosmetin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The fruit extracts had a probable presence of quercetin 3-O-6’-malonylglucoside, ikarisoside C, epimedin C, unknown epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin conjugate derivatives. Furthermore, the fruit extracts from <em>Vangueria madagascariensis </em>showed appreciable antimicrobial properties against human pathogen strains. Strong antimicrobial activity was observed for <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, </em>and<em> Candida albicans.</em> The <em>Vangueria madagascariensis </em>was found to be highly potent against <em>Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis</em> even at low concentrations of 0.1 mg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The research findings may suggest value of the use of <em>Vangueria madagascariensis</em> fruits as a rich source of antioxidants with therapeutic and nutraceutical value.</p> Peter K. Njenga Samuel M. Mugo Ting Zhou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 24 37 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1130296 Induction of Callus in Leaf Explants of Crinum americanum L. (Amaryllidaceae) <p>Amaryllidaceae include plant species that present alkaloids with analgesic, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-malarial activities. Due to this pharmacological value, several species of this family have been widely studied and among them is White lilly, <em>Crinum americanum</em>. The objective of this work was to induce callogenesis on leaf explants of <em>C. americanum</em> cultivated <em>in vitro</em> for future production of alkaloids. Leaf explants were grown on a culture medium (solid) Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators, auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine and their effect on callogenesis assessed for percentage oxidation and explants responsive to callus induction. Callus formation started 10 days after hormone inoculation, and within 30 days after inoculation the best callogenesis and callus biomass growth were observed in medium containing 2.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 10 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of 6-benzylaminopurine. The lowest percentage of oxidation was observed on explants cultivated on medium containing 5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of 6-benzylaminopurine and 2.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The calli obtained were compact and embryogenic. This work contributes not only to future studies on <em>in vitro</em> callogenesis of this species, but also to a possible protocol for the production of alkaloids of interest from cell suspension cultures produced <em>in vitro</em>. This is the first report of callus formation in <em>Crinum americanum</em> explants.</p> Kicia K. P. Gomes- Copeland Izulmé R. I. Santos Amanda G. Torres João V. D. Gomes Fabrício T. C. de Almeida Christopher W. Fagg Sueli M. Gomes Dâmaris Silveira Luiz A. Simeoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-06 2020-08-06 49 56 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1130298 Acalypha indica L. - an Important Medicinal Plant: A Brief Review of Its Pharmacological Properties and Restorative Potential <p>Medicinal plants are moving from border to mainstream use with a more number of people seeking treatment and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. India officially recognizes over 3500 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in folk, traditional and herbal medicine. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and various pharmacological aspects of <em>Acalypha indica</em>. This plant widely used in traditional medicinal system of India and many other countries has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, antifungal hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and also used to check anti-ulcers and wounds healing. It is known as a rich source of glycosides, flavanoids and tannins. The medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of <em>Acalypha indica </em>and its secondary metabolites investigations prove its importance as a valuable medicinal plant.</p> Sudhakar Chekuri Lali Lingfa Shivaprasad Panjala K. C. Sai Bindu Roja Rani Anupalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 1 10 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1130294 Transatlantic and Ancestral Routes and the Pharmacological and Biological Potential of Ocimum basilicum L.: A Review <p>Basil (<em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L.) is not endemic in Brazil; however, it is a symbolic plant for traditional peoples and was present in ancestral cultural resistance. Several species were introduced to Brazil through the slave trade on the Africa-Brazil transatlantic route. In addition, the active constituents of basil are of great pharmaceutical and biological importance, and the plant has been used for therapeutic purposes by a wide variety of people, from quilombola communities to the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, based on African ethnobotany and modern science, this review article aimed to contextualize the endemic and epistemic importance of the origin, traditional, ancestral, medicinal and therapeutic uses of basil, consumed en masse in Brazil (during and after) the slavery period. The bibliographic review was carried out by consulting historical books and Scopus scientific databases. Scielo, transatlantic slave traffic database and Web of Science. The results showed that traditional communities, quilombos and terreiros, already made medicinal and liturgical uses of basil, before its use by the pharmaceutical industry. And that after the period of slavery, several studies carried out by researchers with basil proved that this species has several therapeutic properties, already reported by traditional communities. Thus, it is concluded that <em>O. basilicum</em> L. is an endemic species of the African continent, introduced in Brazil on the transatlantic route and that the traditional and ancestral knowledge for therapeutic use and application was already present in the territory, before the studies of proof of activity, post slavery period. Currently, the species is widely applied in the pharmaceutical and biological industry. However, there is a need for strategies that recognize, value and integrate the knowledge of the traditional peoples of the African diaspora, scientific productions.</p> M. M. A. Pereira L. C. Morais J. M. Q. Luz M. Pasqual J. Dória ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 38 48 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1130297